A specialist is a doctor who has advanced medical training in a specific area. Some specialists, like pediatricians, are well known as doctors who specialize in children’s health. While other specialists, like a nephrologist, can be more difficult to pinpoint as a doctor who specializes in kidney diseases.

Use the following chart if you need to find a specialist but you’re unsure of the proper name to search for.

Specialty Focus
Allergy and Immunology Focusing on allergic and immunologic diseases and their respiratory complications. For example; asthma, food allergies, AIDS, pollen and chemical allergies.
Anesthesiology Used to control pain or provide relief of pain during surgery, childbirth or other causes.
Cardiology Focusing on diseases of the heart and blood vessels.
Colon and Rectal Surgery Focusing on diseases of the large intestine (bowel), rectum and anus that require surgical operation for diagnosis or treatment.
Dermatology Focusing on diseases of the skin.
Endocrinology Referring to diseases of the body's internal glands. This includes diabetes mellitus.
Family Practice Includes the total health care of an individual and family.
Gastroenterology Focusing on diseases of the digestive tract. For example; stomach, bowel, liver and pancreas.
General Practice Includes the total health care of an individual and family.
General Surgery Referring to diseases that require surgical operation for diagnosis or treatment.
Geriatrics Focusing on diseases of the elderly.
Gynecologic Oncology Cancer diseases of the female reproductive system.
Hand Surgery Focusing on diseases and injuries of the nerves, tendons, muscles, bones or skin of the hand that require surgery.
Hematology Referring to disorders of the blood and blood-forming organs. For example, cancerous disorders of the blood, anemia, leukemia and lymphoma. (Also see Oncology.)
Infectious Diseases All types of infections.
Internal Medicine Focusing on the total health care of adults. (18 years of age and older.)
Neonatology Focusing on diseases of newborn children.
Nephrology Focusing on diseases of the kidney, including dialysis.
Neurology Referring to diseases of the brain, spinal cord, nervous system and related structures.
Neurosurgery When surgery is required for diseases of the brain, spinal cord, nervous system and related structures.
Obstetrics and Gynecology Focusing on fertility disorders, diseases of the female reproductive system, and normal and abnormal pregnancies.
Oncology Referring to disorders of the blood and blood-forming organs. This includes cancerous disorders of the blood. (Also see Hematology.)
Ophthalmology Referring to eye diseases.
Orthopedic Surgery Focusing on diseases of the bones, joints, muscles and tendons.
Otolaryngology (ENT)
Focusing on diseases of the ears, nose, sinuses, throat and upper airway passages.
Pediatric Referring to the total health care of newborns, infants, children and adolescents.
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Focusing on disabilities that require retraining, reconditioning and relearning how to use muscles, tendons and extremities in order to restore normal activities of daily living.
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Focusing on diseases and conditions that require surgical reconstruction for a deformity or loss of a body part. Or, for cosmetic purposes to improve appearance.
Primary Podiatric Medicine
Referring to diseases of the foot and ankle.
Psychiatry Focusing on mental health. For example; diseases of the brain, nervous system and substance abuse of drugs or chemicals.
Public Health and General Preventive Medicine Health care that attempts to avoid, delay or prevent disease or illness from occurring.
Pulmonology Referring to lung diseases.
Radiation Oncology Cancer and other diseases requiring radiation. May require x-ray therapy, radioactive isotopes and linear accelerator particle radiation as treatments.
Rheumatology Referring to joint diseases. For example; arthritis and autoimmune diseases.
Sports Medicine Focusing on sports injuries.
Thoracic Surgery
Focusing on diseases of the chest that require surgical operation for diagnosis or treatment. For example; lungs, heart, blood vessels and chest wall.
Urology Focusing on diseases of the kidneys, bladder and male reproductive tract that require surgical operation.
Vascular Surgery Focusing on diseases of the blood vessels that require surgical operation for diagnosis or treatment.